Auguste (27-14) Denier - Pergame ou Samos (c. 27 av. J.-C.) D’un style exceptionnel et d’une qualité hors norme. Exemplaire de la vente Leu 30 du 28 avril 1982, N°2741 et de la vente Triton XI du 8 janvier 2008, N°872 et de la vente Goldberg 53 du 24 mai 2009, N°1861 3.78g - C. 28 - RIC 475 FDC Exceptionnel - CHOICE MS * For a commentary of this type, see the aureus lot 53 below. The exact place where this coin was minted is still uncertain: Asia Minor probably, which could be Pergamum, Apamea, Ephesus or Laodicea ad Mare, but in 1923 Mattingly rather convincingly suggested Samos, where Augustus was in residence during 21-20 BC. In any case, the high quality of the dies suggests an artist of Greek origins, possibly from the Ionian region. The date of its strike is also debated. M. Grant in 1949, and again in 1953, noticed that the laurel wreath could celebrate a victory, as the Latin word vitulari is quite close to vitulus (“bullock”); and – considering that Neptune was nicknamed taureos (because bulls were sacrificed to him and because the seashore provided good pasture) – the coin might celebrate a naval victory such as that of Actium. Several dates have been suggested: Mattingly suggested 27–20 BC, Kent c. 25 BC, Laffranchi 21 BC (the decennalia of Actium), Hill 20 BC, and Calicó 19-15 BC.